Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice
There are differences between men and women in terms of their criminal behaviour and their experiences of the criminal justice system. By far the majority of crime in Scotland is committed by men, and when women offend they tend to commit low-level, non-violent offences and pose little risk to society.
At SCCJR our research about gender, crime and criminal justice includes research about women offenders, interventions for women, violence against women (particularly rape, sexual assault and domestic violence) and young women involved in violent crime.
Prof Margaret Malloch
Associate Director (Postgraduate Research), SCCJR
Professor of Criminology
University of Stirling
Major new report takes stock of violence in Scotland
17th September 2019
Researchers based at the Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research have published a major new report which consolidates existing knowledge on violence in Scotland. A wealth of research has been conducted in Scotland over the last decade which has been essential in helping us understand violent offending in this country, but this is the first...
Victim-Survivors of rape don’t feel justice has been met, even if the accused goes to prison
22nd August 2019
The Scottish criminal justice process leaves those who have reported a rape or serious sexual assault feeling marginalised and with little control regardless of their case’s outcome, a new study has found. Researchers from the Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research at the University of Glasgow interviewed victim-survivors who have...
BBC Radio 3 to feature Alistair Fraser’s ‘Hard Man in the Call Centre’ Essay
19th June 2019
SCCJR’s Alistair Fraser will feature on BBC Radio 3’s The Essay programme on Friday evening (21 June). Recorded with an audience at the York Festival of Ideas his essay, Hard Man in the Call Centre’ traces the story of Glasgow’s unpredictable tough guy, schooled in both fist and knife, a symbol of the city’s...
New project shines light on domestic abuse in Scotland
10th June 2019
A new community art project will see women who have been victims of domestic abuse create a stained glass window to illustrate their experiences. GlassWalls is led by Dr Emma Forbes, whose PhD thesis explored victims’ experiences of the court process and accessing justice. Her work included listening to stories of many women across Scotland and...
Scotland to form part of major European study into institutional responses to domestic abuse
12th November 2018
Researchers from the Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research (SCCJR) have received funding from EU Horizon 2020 to support research into how institutions, including the police and social work, respond to domestic abuse. SCCJR will work in partnership with Police Scotland to carry out the Scottish strand of the €2.9 million IMPRODOVA project, a three-year study which will see Prof Michele...
Victim-survivors of rape and sexual assault will inform new research from SCCJR.
23rd May 2018
Research into the experiences of rape and sexual assault victim-survivors will help ensure the interests of victims are at the heart of the criminal justice system. The Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research (SCCJR) project will seek to identify and understand the range of factors that affect whether individuals who experience rape and...
National project provides ‘life-changing’ advocacy work to victims of sexual violence
1st March 2018
AN innovative support service for victim-survivors of rape and serious sexual crime in Scotland has received overwhelmingly positive feedback from those accessing the service. Researchers from the Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research (SCCJR) were tasked with evaluating Rape Crisis Scotland’s National Advocacy Project (NAP). The service funded by the Scottish Government and launched in...
SCCJR student Annie Crowley wins prestigious feminist research scholarship
4th May 2016
SCCJR PhD student Annie Crowley has beaten off competition from around the globe to be awarded the 2016 Feminist Criminology Graduate Research Scholarship. This is an outstanding achievement, as an unprecedented number of entries were received this year. The scholarship is awarded annually by the Division on Women and Crime (DWC) of the American Society of Criminology, to “an...
Research into dual reports of domestic abuse published
26th May 2015
The Scottish Institute for Policing Research has published a research summary of a project by researchers from the SCCJR. Oona Brooks and Deborah Kyle, both of the University of Glasgow, carried out research into dual reports of domestic abuse made to the police in Scotland. Their research highlights findings from a pilot study that used Scottish police data to undertake exploratory analysis...
Michele Burman gave a key note presentation to the Clinks Women Conference
19th December 2012
Michele Burman gave a key note presentation to the Clinks Women Conference ‘Breaking the Cycle of Women’s Offending: where next?’ in The Drapers Hall in Central London on 10th December. Michele spoke about the Report of Scotland’s Commission on Women Offenders and the progress made towards meeting its recommendations.
Scottish Community Safety Network
1st November 2012
Scottish Community Safety Network SCCJR works with the Scottish Community Safety Network to ensure that up to date thinking and evidence on crime and justice issues is shared with network members and that the work of our academics is informed by the concerns and experiences of network members.
Criminal Justice Responses to Rape and Sexual Assault (Michele Burman) …
1st November 2012
Criminal Justice Responses to Rape and Sexual Assault (Michele Burman) Michele Burman has undertaken a range of separate, yet inter-related, empirical projects in relation to criminal justice responses to gendered violence, in particular rape and sexual assault. Following a series of evaluation projects undertaken with Professor Lynn Jamieson of Edinburgh University on the introduction of...
Evaluation of the Up-2-Us Time for Change Project
22nd August 2011
This is an evaluation of the pilot Up-2-Us Time for Change Project, which is a gender-specific service targeted at young women aged between 14 and 18 years deemed to be at significantly high risk of admission to secure care or custody. The research takes a multi-dimensional perspective, by undertaking a set of qualitative interviews with young women attending the project, the professionals...
Understanding female imprisonment in Scotland
15th March 2011
SCCJR has published research exploring the drivers of female imprisonment in Scotland. The report is available here, and a briefing paper based on the report can be accessed here. Overall, this research indicates that the growth in the female prison population is more likely attributed to the increasing use of custodial sentences by courts than changes in the pattern of female offending.
Women, Punishment and Community Sanctions
24th May 2010
A team of academics, policy makers and practitioners met in May as part of a programme of enquiry on Women, Punishment and Community Sanctions, led by SCCJR’s Gill McIvor and Margaret Malloch. This programme will involve further meetings and a range of future research and knowledge exchange activities. For details see our programme websiteand visit the document library for materials...
Violence Against Women Prevention Network
12th April 2010
VAW Prevention Scotland is the national violence against women (VAW) prevention network for Scotland which is coordinated by Zero Tolerance Charitable Trust and funded by the Scottish Government. Further information at: http://www.vawpreventionscotland.org.uk They are working to develop a violence against women researcher hub which connects researchers working on VAW-related research...
Women, Punishment and Community Sanctions: Human Rights and Social Justice: programme of enquiry and knowledge exchange
9th February 2010
SCCJR, working with a range of colleagues, has successfully secured support from the Institute for Advanced Studies to develop a programme of enquiry and knowledge exchange on the topic of Women, Punishment and Community Sanctions: Human Rights and Social Justice. The programme will run from April – September 2010. The core objective of the programme...
IMPRODOVA is a 36-month European Commission funded research and innovation project which is focused on the human factors shaping institutional responses to domestic abuse. The research involves 8 countries (Austria, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Portugal, Scotland, Slovenia), and 16 project partners and is being conducted by Professor Michele Burman, Dr Oona Brooks and Dr Lisa Bradley, all...
Justice Journeys: Informing policy and practice through lived experience
The principal focus of this research is on rape and sexual assault victim-survivors’ end-to-end experiences of the criminal justice system. It comprises in-depth interviews with 17 participants, whose cases reached varying stages of the criminal justice process in Scotland, including through to trial and conviction. The research aims to gain fuller understanding of: rape and sexual assault...
Parenting for Respectability
A parenting programme for the early prevention of gender-based violence is being developed and evaluated in Uganda. This project, supported by the Global Challenges Research Fund, will analyse and write-up the results of a pre-post evaluation and develop plans and skills for a large-scale experimental evaluation. The project is led by Professor Danny Wight and the final report is due 2019. For...
The effects of vicarious traumatisation upon those working in the justice system in Scotland
The project will explores the experiences of service providers working with girls and young women who have experienced trauma and victimization. The project, which started in January 2017, is using mixed methods, including interviews and psychometric measures, with 25-30 service providers working in either custodial or community-based settings with girls and young women who are involved with /
Evaluation of Rape Crisis Scotland’s National Advocacy Project
The Rape Crisis Scotland National Advocacy Project (NAP) was introduced to provide advocacy support for survivors of sexual crimes engaging, or considering engaging, with the criminal justice system. The evaluation assessed the impact of the NAP on victim-survivors, and the extent to which it has influenced policy and practice within key criminal justice agencies. The National Advocacy Project...
Implicit Thinking in Intimate Partner violence
This pilot study involves data collection from two sites, one in England & Wales and one in Scotland. The work is supported by the Scottish Prison service (SPS). The work is producing the first dataset describing the implicit thinking of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) offenders and the results will be presented at both national and international conferences in...
Understanding the drivers of the female prison population in Scotland
SCCJR are undertaking some analysis aimed at identifying factors that may have contributed to the increased use of female imprisonment in Scotland. The number of women imprisoned in Scotland has risen dramatically over the last 10-15 years (as it has done in other western jurisdictions) prompting questions as to the factors that have brought about this change. In seeking to explore this issue...
Assessing Dynamic Risk in Intimate Partner Offenders
This project, which was conducted in 2009, was sponsored by the Scottish government and involved reviewing literature to develop a comprehensive risk assessment approach for intimate partner offenders which would be open to dynamic change, thus capable of reflecting the impact of treatment groups and other interventions within the criminal justice system. This was undertaken by Prof. E.
Assessing Risk in Intimate Partner Offenders
This project was sponsored by the Risk Management Authority and was undertaken 2009-2010. This involved critical appraisal of the literature and evidence base in IPV risk assessment and producing a paper to inform the Risk Management Authority’s guidance on IPV risk Assessment and management. The work was undertaken by Prof. Liz Gilchrist and is currently informing policy advice...
Evaluation of Up-to-us Young Women’s Project
Evaluation of the Up-2-Us Time for Change Project This is an evaluation of the pilot Up-2-Us Time for Change Project, which is a gender-specific service targeted at young women aged between 14 and 18 years deemed to be at significantly high risk of admission to secure care or custody. The research takes a multi-dimensional perspective, by undertaking a set of qualitative interviews...
A profile of female offenders within the Lothian and Borders
Understanding the characteristics and needs of women in the criminal justice system is a first step towards the development of effective interventions and services that can divert female offenders from imprisonment and support their desistance from crime. This study, funded by the Lothian and Borders Community Justice Authority, described and analysed the characteristics and needs of women...
Evaluation of the Women in Focus Programme
The Women in Focus Programme is aimed at reducing the number of women imprisoned from the South West Scotland Community Justice Authority area by offering additional support within the framework of a statutory order. The research, funded by the South West Scotland Community Justice Authority, is assessing the effectiveness of the programme in reducing levels of breach and levels of custody...
Women, Punishment and Community Sanctions – Human Rights and Social Justice
The core objective of the programme will be to draw upon international knowledge and expertise to critically assess cross cultural responses to lawbreaking by women with a particular emphasis upon human rights and social justice. The programme will focus upon comparative experiences of community sanctions for women, an area that has received relatively little academic and policy attention. In...
User Views of Punishment
Sarah Armstrong (Glasgow University) and Beth Weaver (Strathclyde University) conducted research, in cooperation with the Scottish Prison Service, into the experience of doing short prison sentences and community-based sentences (probation, community service). We explored what those affected by these punishments are going through and how such sentences help or hinder the ability to reduce...
Different Systems, Similar Outcomes? Tracking Attrition in Reported Rape Cases
This project, led by Professor Liz Kelly and Jo Lovett of CWASU, London Metropolitan University was funded under the European Commission, Daphne II Programme. The project set out to research attrition of rape cases in the European context, across 11 countries with varying judicial systems and cultures. The research sought to explore in detail the factors involved in attrition of rape cases and...
Policy Responses to Gender Based Crime in Scotland
Michele Burman and Jenny Johnstone in collaboration with Janette de Haan and Jan Macleod, of the Women’s Support Project received a research grant from the Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) for a project entitled Responding To Gender-Based Violence In Scotland : The Scope Of The Gender Equality Duty To Drive Cultural And Practical Change ‘ The project summarised current...
Young Women and Violence
Members of SCCJR are involved in ongoing scholarship on young women and violence. Funded projects have included: ‘A View from the Girls: Exploring Violence and Violent Behaviour’ (Michele Burman, Kay Tisdall, Jane Brown & Susan Batchelor, ESRC Violence Research Programme) ‘Pathways Through Violence: Young Women Incarcerated for Violent Offences’ (Susan...
‘Holistic’ interventions with women involved in the criminal justice system.
This project considered the recent emphasis on ‘holistic’ responses aimed at meeting the needs of women caught up in the criminal justice system. It drew on recent work (evaluation of the 218 Centre, comparative analysis of services in Scotland and Canada) to identify how ‘holism’ is defined, what this means in practice and what the implications of this approach are...
Gender Equality Duty and Scottish Criminal Justice – EOC Guidance
The Gender Equality Duty (GED) came into force in April 2007. It requires all public authorities to demonstrate that they are promoting equality for women and men, in terms of policy making, service delivery, regulation and employment, and that they are eliminating sex discrimination. The SCCJR worked with the EOC to develop the EOC Guidance and we have developed web based flowcharts to be read...
Taking Stock of Violence in Scotland
Published: September 2019
Approaches to violence prevention have also developed apace over the same period, with increasing acknowledgement of some of the structural inequalities and inequities that shape meanings and experiences of violence. However, there is still work to be done. Whilst many neighbourhoods in Scotland have experienced an overall decline in crime, particular neighbourhoods and communities remain...
Justice Journeys Informing policy and practice through lived experience of victim‐survivors of rape and serious sexual assault
Published: August 2019
This report documents the journeys of the victim-survivors interviewed as they navigated the Scottish criminal justice system. It begins with the decision to report to the police and continues through to reporting, investigation, prosecution, trial and court verdict. The research did not intend to consider sentencing, though views on this are included where they are available. Finally,...
Briefing on the Domestic Abuse (Scotland) Act 2018 Reporting Requirement
Section 14 subsection 4 (f) requires ‘information about the experience of witnesses (including witnesses who are children) at court’. The Measuring Justice project is completing a review of methods of measuring justice experiences and offers a summary of how this work might inform the Government’s fulfilment of the reporting requirement.
Young Women and Girls in Contemporary Scotland and Beyond Conference Report
Published: September 2018
Hannah Walters, Amanda Ptolomey and Donna MacLellan, University of Glasgow PhD researchers, collectively known as Girlhood Gang, hosted their first conference on 5 September 2018: Young Women and Girls in Contemporary Scotland and Beyond. Held in Glasgow Women’s Library and Olympia Social Research Hub, the conference was attended by 60 academics, students, practitioners, activists, volunteers,...
The Scottish Prisons Commission 10 Years On – A Briefing Paper
Published: July 2018
This briefing paper highlights the key issues that the Commission concerned itself with during its deliberations, quoting from its report and sketching how the landscape in these areas has developed since then. We hope it serves as a useful refresher for stimulating your participation at the conference on 29th June 2018. The presentations, lectures and discussion at this event will inform the...
‘Home game’: domestic abuse and football
Published: February 2018
Increased reports of domestic violence and abuse (DVA) following football matches have been documented, within both quantitative studies and the media, leading to questions about the policy and practice responses required. However, qualitative research facilitating understanding of the apparent link between football and DVA is lacking. Drawing upon research with key stakeholders across England...
Evaluation of the Rape Crisis Scotland National Advocacy Project, Final Report 2018
Published: January 2018
Oona Brooks-Hay, Michele Burman, Lisa Bradley and Deborah Kyle This is the final report detailing findings from the evaluation of Rape Crisis Scotland’s National Advocacy Project (NAP). It draws upon data gathered since the launch of the NAP in February 2016 to the end of August 2017. Findings are presented in three main sections: key national stakeholder perspectives; survivor data and...
Evaluation of the Rape Crisis Scotland National Advocacy Project Summary Report Jan 2018
Published: January 2018
There has been increased attention paid to sexual violence by both the UK and Scottish Government, amidst a context in which the response of the criminal justice system in dealing with rape and serious sexual assault, and its impact upon those reporting these offences, has been subject to scrutiny. Enduring concerns such as ‘secondary victimisation’ (Kelly et al., 2005; Burman, 2009), high...
Evidence Assessment of the Impacts of the Criminalisation of the Purchase of Sex: A Review
Published: February 2017
During the passage of the Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Scotland) Act 2015, the Cabinet Secretary gave a commitment to the Justice Committee and to Parliament that the Scottish Government would commission research to investigate the reliability of the evidence available on the criminalisation of the purchase of sexual services, and how it applies to Scotland. This report considers the...
Examining sexual offences through a sociological lens: A socio-cultural exploration of causal and desistance theories
Published: January 2017
Kyle, D. (2016) Examining sexual offences through a sociological lens: A socio-cultural exploration of causal and desistance theories, European Journal of Probation, 8(3): 170-184
The changing landscape of Scottish responses to sex work: addressing violence against sex workers
Smith, E. (2015) ‘The changing landscape of Scottish responses to sex work: addressing violence against sex workers’, Graduate Journal of Social Science, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 101–128
Domestic abuse, crime surveys and the fallacy of risk: Exploring partner and domestic abuse using the Scottish Crime and Justice Survey
MacQueen, S (2016) 'Domestic abuse, crime surveys and the fallacy of risk: Exploring partner and domestic abuse using the Scottish Crime and Justice Survey' in Criminology and Criminal Justice (advance online access) DOI: 10.1177/1748895816634410
Gender and criminal justice: Challenging prejudice
Thain-Gray, R., Jones, R. and Malloch, M. (2016), ‘Gender and criminal justice: Challenging prejudice’ in Scottish Justice Matters, vol.4 no.1. p.11-12
Scottish Social Attitudes Survey 2014: Attitudes to violence against women in Scotland
Reid, S., McConville, S., Wild, A., Burman, M. and Curtice, J. (2015), Scottish Social Attitudes Survey 2014: Attitudes to violence against women in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Government
A comparison: criminalised women in Scotland Women and Criminal Justice
Burman, M., Malloch, M. and McIvor, G. (2015) 'A comparison: criminalised women in Scotland Women and Criminal Justice' in Annison, J., Brayford, J. and Deering, J. (eds.) Women and Criminal Justice : From the Corston Report to Transforming Rehabilitation. Bristol: Policy Press
Discursive Detours on the Route to Justice for Women
Malloch, M. (2015) Discursive Detours on the Route to Justice for Women. The Scottish Journal of Criminal Justice Studies, 21: 25-36.
The Scottish Women’s Rights Centre
Burman, M. and Matheson, K. (2015) ‘The Scottish Women’s Rights Centre’, SCOLAG (Scottish Legal Action Group) vol. 455 (September 2015)
Gendered violence: a cause and consequence of inequality
Lombard, N. (2015) ‘Gendered violence: a cause and consequence of inequality’ in Bettio, F. and Sansonetti, S. (2015), Visons for Gender Equality. Luxembourg: Publication Office of the European Union
Young People’s Understandings of Men’s Violence Against Women
Lombard, N. (2015) Young People's Understandings of Men's Violence Against Women. Surrey: Ashgate
Police awareness and involvement in cases of domestic and partner abuse
MacQueen, S. and Norris, P. (2014) ‘Police awareness and involvement in cases of domestic and partner abuse’ in Policing and Society (online first edition) DOI: 10.1080/10439463.2014.922084
Gender, Policing and Social Control: Examining Police Officers’ Perceptions of and Responses to Young Women Depicted as Violent
Young, S., "Gender, Policing and Social Control: Examining Police Officers' Perceptions of and Responses to Young Women Depicted as Violent", SCCJR Briefing Paper, Briefing No. 01/2012.
Time for Change Briefing Paper: Summary of Findings
Burman, M. and Imlah, N. (2011), "Time for Change Briefing Paper", SCCJR Briefing Paper No.07/2011.
Women in Focus: an evaluation
Burgess, C., Malloch, M. and McIvor, G. (2011) Women in Focus: An Evaluation, Stirling: SCCJR, Research Report.
Understanding the Drivers of Female Imprisonment in Scotland
McIvor, G. and Burman, M. (2011), Understanding the Drivers of Female Imprisonment in Scotland. SCCJR Research Report No.2. 2011
Briefing paper: Understanding the drivers of female imprisonment in Scotland
McIvor, G. and Burman, M. (2011), Briefing paper: Understanding the drivers of female imprisonment in Scotland, SCCJR Briefing 01/2011.
Responding to Gender-based Violence in Scotland: The Scope of the Gender Equality Duty to Drive Cultural and Practical Change
Burman, M., Johnstone, J., de Haan, J. and Macleod, J. (2009), Responding to Gender-based Violence in Scotland: The Scope of the Gender Equality Duty to Drive Cultural and Practical Change. Equality and Human Rights Commision.
Girls and Young Women in the Youth Justice System – Vulnerable or Risky?. Towards Effective Practice
Rigby, P., Jardine, C. and Whyte, B. (2011) Girls and Young Women in the Youth Justice System – Vulnerable or Risky?. Towards Effective Practice, Paper 12. Criminal Justice Social Work Development Centre for Scotland.
Offender Supervision: New Directions in Theory, Research and Practice
McNeill, F., Raynor, P. and Trotter, C. (eds) (2010) Offender Supervision: New Directions in Theory, Research and Practice. Willan, Cullompton.
Beyond supervision: Judicial Involvement in Offender Management
McIvor, G. (2010) 'Beyond supervision: Judicial Involvement in Offender Management'. In F. McNeill, P. Raynor and C. Trotter (eds) Offender Supervision: New Directions in Theory, Research and Practice, Cullompton: Willan Publishing; 215 - 238.
Youth Crime and Justice in Scotland
McAra, L. and McVie, S. (2010) 'Youth Crime and Justice in Scotland'. In H. Croall, G. Mooney and M. Munro (eds) Criminal Justice in Contemporary Scotland. Cullompton: Willan Publishing; 67 - 89.
Determining identity and nationality in local policing
Hamilton-Smith, L.N. and Patel, S. (2010), Determining identity and nationality in local policing, Home Office Research Report No. 42.
Youth Crime and Justice: Key messages from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime
McAra, L., and McVie, S. (2010), 'Youth Crime and Justice: Key Messages from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime', Criminology and Criminal Justice 10: 211-230.
Paying back: 30 years of unpaid work by offenders in Scotland
McIvor, G. (2010) ‘Paying back: 30 years of unpaid work by offenders in Scotland’, European Journal of Probation, 2, 1, 41-61.
Community service in Belgium, the Netherlands, Scotland and Spain: a comparative perspective
McIvor, G., Beyens, K., Blay, E. and Boone, M. (2010) Community service in Belgium, the Netherlands, Scotland and Spain: a comparative perspective. European Journal of Probation Vol. 2, No.1, 2010, pp 82 – 98.
Professional decision-making and women offenders: Containing the chaos?
Barry, M. and McIvor, G. (2010) 'Professional decision-making and women offenders: Containing the chaos', Probation Journal, 57, 1, 27-41.
Travelling Hopefully: Desistance Research and Probation Practice
Weaver, B. and McNeill, F. (2010) 'Travelling hopefully: Desistance Research and Probation Practice'. In: J. Brayford, F. Cowe and J. Deering (eds) What Else Works?: Creative Work with Offenders. Cullompton: Willan; 36 - 60.
Mackenzie, S. (2010) 'Fakes'. In: F. Brookman, M. Maguire, H. Pierpoint, and T. Bennett (eds) Handbook on Crime. Cullompton: Willan; 120-136.
Mackenzie, S. (2010) 'Fakes'. In: F. Brookman, M. Maguire, H. Pierpoint, and T. Bennett (eds) Handbook on Crime. Cullompton: Willan; 137-152.
Applying reassurance policing: Is it Business as usual?
Herrington, V. and Millie, A. (2006) ‘Applying reassurance policing: Is it ‘business as usual’?’ Policing and Society, 16(2) 146-163.
The drivers of perceptions of anti-social behaviour
Mackenzie, S., Bannister, J., Flint, J., Parr, S., Millie, A., and Fleetwood, J. (2010) The drivers of perceptions of anti-social behaviour. Home Office Research Report (34). ISSN 1756-3666.
Women, resettlement and desistance
McIvor, G., Trotter, C. and Sheehan, C. (2009), Women, resettlement and desistance. Probation Journal 56(4): 347–361.
Girls, gangs and violence: Assessing the evidence
Batchelor, S. (2009) Girls, gangs and violence: assessing the evidence.Probation Journal, 56 (4). pp. 399-414. ISSN 0264-5505 (doi:10.1177/0264550509346501)
Evidencing sexual assault: Women in the witness box
Burman, M.J. (2009) Evidencing sexual assault: women in the witness box.Probation Journal, 56 (4). pp. 379-398.
Crime as an issue during the 2005 UK general election
Millie, A., (2008), 'Crime as an issue during the 2005 UK general election'.Crime, Media, Culture, 4 (1). pp. 101-111.
Vulnerability and risk: some lessons from the UK Reducing Burglary Initiative
Millie, A. (2008) ‘Vulnerability and risk: Some lessons from the UK Reducing Burglary Initiative’, Police Practice and Research, 9(3) 183-198.
Forced to Make Amends: An Evaluation of the Community Reparation Order Pilots
Curran, J., MacQueen, S. and Whyte, B. (2007), Forced to Make Amends: An Evaluation of the Community Reparation Order Pilots. Scottish Government.
Public Trust in Criminal Justice: A Review of the Research Literature in the United States
Bradford, B., and Jackson, J., (2009), 'Public Trust in Criminal Justice: A Review of the Research Literature in the United States', Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1369704 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1369704
Does the fear of crime erode public confidence in policing?
Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Hohl, K. and Farrall, S. (2009), Does the fear of crime erode public confidence in policing?, Policing (2009) 3 (1): 100-111.
Beyond Measuring ‘How Good a Job’ Police Are Doing: The MPS Model of Confidence in Policing
Stanko, E. A. and Bradford, B. (2009), Beyond Measuring 'How Good a Job' Police Are Doing: The MPS Model of Confidence in Policing. Policing (2009) 3 (4): 322-330.
Using Research to Inform Policy: The Role of Public Attitude Surveys in Understanding Public Confidence and Police Contact
Bradford, B., Stanko, E. A. and Jackson, J. (2009), Using Research to Inform Policy: The Role of Public Attitude Surveys in Understanding Public Confidence and Police Contact. Policing (2009) 3 (2): 139-148.
Crime, policing and social order: on the expressive nature of public confidence in policing
Jackson, J. and Bradford, B. (2009) 'Crime, policing and social order: on the expressive nature of public confidence in policing'. British journal of sociology, 60 (3). pp. 493-521. ISSN 0007-1315
Contact and confidence: revisiting the impact of public encounters with the police
Bradford, B., Jackson, J. and Stanko, E. A. (2009), Contact and confidence: revisiting the impact of public encounters with the police. Policing and Society 19(1): 20-46.
Between Two Stools? Responding to Young Women who Offend
Burman, M., and Batchelor, S.A. (2009) Between two stools? Responding to young women who offend.Youth Justice, 9 (3). pp. 270-285. ISSN 1473-2254 (doi:10.1177/1473225409345104).
Anti-social behaviour, behavioural expectations and an urban aesthetic
Millie, A. (2008) ‘Anti-social behaviour, behavioural expectations and an urban aesthetic’, British Journal of Criminology, 48(3) 379-394.
Sex Offender Community Notification in Scotland
Weaver, B. (2009) 'Sex Offender Community Notification in Scotland'. SCCJR Briefing Paper, No. 03/2009.
Rehabilitation and Resettlement: A Study of Prolific Offender Case Management in Birmingham, United Kingdom
Millie, A. and Erol, R. (2006) 'Rehabilitation and resettlement: a study of prolific offender case management in Birmingham, United Kingdom'. In: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 50(6): 691 - 710.
Women and the ‘Fear of Crime’: Challenging the accepted stereotype
Gilchrist, E., Bannister, J., Ditton, J. and Farrall, S. (1998) Women and the ‘fear of crime’:challenging the accepted stereotype, British Journal of Criminology, 38, pp. 283–299.
Critical Issues in Researching Hidden Communities
Ashe, S., Fraser, A. and Piacentini, T. (2009) ‘Introduction: Critical Issues in Researching ‘Hidden Communities’’. In: eSharp - Special Issue: Critical Issues in Researching Hidden Communities. Glasgow: University of Glasgow; 1 - 9.
An Evaluation of Parenting and Children Together (PACT)
Burgess, C. and Malloch, M., (2008), 'An Evaluation of Parenting and Children Together (PACT) in HMP Cornton Vale', Stirling:Aberlour Child Care Trust and SCCJR.
Evaluation of the National Parenting Development Project
Burgess, C. and Malloch, M. (2008), 'Evaluation of the National Parenting Development Project', SCCJR Researh Report, No; 02/2008
Chaotic Lives: A Profile of Women in the Criminal Justice System in Lothian and Borders
Barry, M. and McIvor, G. (2008) Chaotic Lives: A Profile of Women in the Criminal Justice System in Lothian and Borders, Edinburgh: Lothian and Borders Community Justice Authority.
Researching Girls and Violence. Facing the Dilemmas of Fieldwork
Burman, M.J., Batchelor, S.A., and Brown, J.A. (2001) Researching girls and violence: facing the dilemmas of fieldwork. British Journal of Criminology, 41 (3). pp. 443-459. ISSN 0007-0955 (doi:10.1093/bjc/41.3.443).
Turbulent Talk: Girls’ Making Sense of Violence
Burman, M. (2004) 'Turbulent Talk: Girls' Making Sense of Violence'. In: C. Alder and A. Worrall (eds) Girls' Violence: Myths and Realities. Series: SUNY series in Women, Crime, and Criminology. Albany: State University of New York Press; 81 - 104.
Girls Behaving Violently
Burman, M. (2003) Girls Behaving Violently?Criminal Justice Matters, 53 (1). pp. 20-21. ISSN 0962-7251 (doi:10.1080/09627250308553567)
The Nature of Female Offending
McIvor, G. (2007) 'The Nature of Female Offending'. In: R. Sheehan,G. McIvor and C. Trotter (eds) What Works with Women Offenders. Cullompton: Willan Publishing; 1 - 22.
What Does Work for Women Offenders?
Sheehan, R., McIvor G. and Trotter, C. (2007) 'What does work for women offenders?'. In: R. Sheehan,G. McIvor and C. Trotter (eds) What Works with Women Offenders. Cullompton: Willan Publishing; 300 - 310.
What Works with Women Offenders
Sheehan, R., McIvor, G., and Trotter, C. (eds) (2007) What Works with Women Offenders. Cullompton, Devon: Willan.
Reconfigurations of penality :The ongoing case of the women’s imprisonment and reintegration industries
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