Criminal Justice Process and Institutions
Criminal justice processes and institutions are used by the government or state to maintain social control, deter and control crime, and sanction those who violate laws. Key institutions involved in the Scottish criminal justice process include the police, the courts, Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service and correctional institutions (prisons etc).
SCCJR’s work on this topic includes research on formal practices (such as policing, prosecution, sentencing and sanctioning) and less formal alternatives (such as restorative justice). We have a particular expertise in relation to youth justice and community penalties.
Working Title of PhD: An exploration of how young people experience the effects of the imprisonment of a family member Funded by: Edinburgh University School of Law PhD Scholarship, 2012-15. Year commenced PhD study: 2012 (Full Time) Supervisor(s): Dr Anna Souhami, Prof Lesley McAra Synopsis: This research will explore the experience of young people, aged 16 -21 years, who have a family member...
My current research is focused on the way that jurors are able to communicate in criminal trials and my vision for the future is to develop academic dialogues on related subjects in as many different artistic languages as I can. My work is multidisciplinary in which I draw together criminal justice research (specifically jury research), interactive theatre arts (specifically Augusto Boal’s...
Dr Steve Kirkwood
I am originally from Wellington, Aotearoa / New Zealand, where I completed an honours degree in English Literature and Psychology and an MSc in Psychology at Victoria University of Wellington. My MSc focused on the topic of identity and indigenous rights. I then moved to Edinburgh where I worked as a Research Officer for the Community Justice charity, Sacro, from 2005-2009, undertaking research...
Dr Stephanie Fohring
I joined the School Law in January 2013 after being awarded a Post-Doctoral Fellowship from the British Academy. Prior to this, I was a doctoral candidate in the School on a case studentship co-funded by the ESRC and Scottish Government. My PhD thesis was entitled The Process of Victimisation: Examining Risk, Reporting and Service Use which used Scottish Crime and Justice Survey Data alongside...
I worked as a criminal justice social worker for ten years. I have extensive experience of criminal justice social work including the supervision of statutory orders and non-statutory deferments from court; supervision of sex offenders in the community; supervision of throughcare licences; court-based services and the provision of reports and risk assessments to assist the judiciary in...
Dr Sarah Armstrong
Sarah Armstrong is Senior Research Fellow based at Glasgow University. Her research interests revolve around prisons and punishment: policy processes that shape and sustain them; language practices that inform and construct them; market and governance forces that expand and contain them. She has an ESRC small grant (September 2008 – September 2010) to conduct an ethnography of penal policy and...
Prof Fergus McNeill
Fergus McNeill is Professor of Criminology & Social Work at the University of Glasgow. Prior to becoming an academic in 1998, Fergus worked for a number of years in residential drug rehabilitation and as a criminal justice social worker. He teaches on undergraduate and postgraduate courses in criminology, social work and sociology. Fergus’s main interests lie in the fields of sentencing,...
Working Title of PhD: How those with a learning disability experience the criminal justice system, with particular reference to imprisonment and release. Year commenced PhD Study: 2012 (Full time) Funding Source: ESRC/Cornerstone collaboration. PhD Supervisors: Prof Michele Burman, Prof Nick Watson, Lynn Jolly (Cornerstone) Synopsis: The proposed research will explore how people with learning...
Dr Marguerite Schinkel
Marguerite Schinkel joined SCCJR in October 2013 as an ESRC Future Leader Research Fellow. Her post-doctoral research examines how those who offend persistently, but not necessarily seriously, make sense of the series of punishments they undergo. She will be conducting life history interviews with men and women who have been punished over a period of at least fifteen years, followed by a second...
Prof Richard Sparks
Richard Sparks is Professor of Criminology at the University of Edinburgh. He was formerly Professor of Criminology at Keele University and in his early career also worked at the Open University and the University of Cambridge. His main research interests lie in the sociology of punishment (especially imprisonment); penal politics; and public responses to crime and punishment. Recent research...
Artist in Residence
15th November 2012
Working Spaces, Punishing Spaces: The Meaning and Construction of Place through Criminological Research Photographer Jenny Wicks has completed a nine month residency studying the work of criminologists at The Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research, Glasgow University. The residency has resulted in an interactive multi-media installation incorporating audio, fine art photography and object...
‘The Road from Crime Film Launch’
15th November 2012
About 300 people from across the criminal justice sector attended the launch of ‘The Road from Crime’ on 18th June 2012. The film is the product of an ESRC funded knowledge exchange project involving Fergus McNeill (SCCJR, University of Glasgow), Steve Farrall (University of Sheffield), Claire Lightowler (Institute for Research and Innovation in Social Services) and Shadd Maruna (Queen’s...
Community Policing Project
1st November 2012
Community Policing Project Simon Mackenzie (SCCJR) and Alistair Henry (SIPR) have been awarded an AHRC Knowledge Transfer Fellowship. The project involves academic criminologists working with the City of Edinburgh community police and their senior officers to identify and develop future directions for community policing in Scotland. The programme consists of a series of workshops, the results of...
Scottish Community Safety Network
1st November 2012
Scottish Community Safety Network SCCJR works with the Scottish Community Safety Network to ensure that up to date thinking and evidence on crime and justice issues is shared with network members and that the work of our academics is informed by the concerns and experiences of network members.
Ministry of Justice – Summary of Review on Quality in Probation Supervision now published
12th March 2012
The review looked at quality in relation to probation supervision in different countries, looking at how it is seen by both supervisors and service users. Please click to access Report...
A new survey backs up the Reading the Riots findings that adversarial police tactics risk the legitimacy of legal authorities
15th December 2011
Justice Analytical Services monthly bulletin November 2011
5th December 2011
Justice Analytical Services (JAS), Scottish Government, are producing a new monthly bulletin: ‘Monthly Safer Communities and Justice Brief”. The bulletin will provide facts and figures on a range of topics including: Crime, Policing, Drugs, Community Safety, Criminal and Civil Proceedings and Offender Management. This month’s feature is: ‘Results from the...
Sarah Armstrong and Beth Weaver receive award from the Howard League for Penal Reform
20th June 2011
Sarah Armstrong and Beth Weaver received a highly commended award from the Howard League for Penal Reform on 14.06.11 for their research into ‘Users Views of Punishment’. The award was presented as part of the Howard League for Penal Reform’s celebration of the work of academics and researchers whose work offers genuine new insights into the penal system through the...
Understanding female imprisonment in Scotland
15th March 2011
SCCJR has published research exploring the drivers of female imprisonment in Scotland. The report is available here, and a briefing paper based on the report can be accessed here. Overall, this research indicates that the growth in the female prison population is more likely attributed to the increasing use of custodial sentences by courts than changes in the pattern of female offending.
New Videos: SCCJRs Fergus McNeill talks about desistance, criminal justice social work and more…
22nd November 2010
Fergus McNeill has been recorded by Film Exchange on Alcohol and Drugs (FEAD) discussing a range of topics, including: Desistance, and desistance supporting communities How Restorative Justice can improve on traditional criminal justice approaches ‘Good Lives’ Model and looking beyond ‘what you mustn’t do’ Social work ethics and values and moral...
User Views of Punishment: Research report published
11th November 2010
Scotland is currently engaged in one of the biggest penal reform projects in a generation, seeking to fundamentally change its approach to punishment, which is characterised by high use of imprisonment compared to other parts of Europe, and the use of very short prison sentences. In Scotland around three quarters of prison sentences handed down by the courts are for six months or less. But...
New updated version of Policing Scotland book by Daniel Donnolly and Kenneth Scott published this month
21st September 2010
SCCJR associate member Kenneth Scott and Daniel Donnelly have builds upon the success of the first edition and aims to provide an up-to-date and authoritative account of recent developments and provide an overview of policing in Scotland, with an updated description of the basic factual information about Scottish policing as it stands in the present age. Contributors to the book are drawn from...
Having an Impact on Probation and Prisons
13th August 2010
We are delighted to announce that throughout the remainder of 2010 Fergus McNeill will be acting as an academic adviser to the Belgian Presidency of the Council of the European Union in relation to the implementation of the EU Framework Decision on the supervision of probation measures and alternative sanctions. Additionally, from 2010-2011 Fergus will be a member of the Prison Review...
Women, Punishment and Community Sanctions
24th May 2010
A team of academics, policy makers and practitioners met in May as part of a programme of enquiry on Women, Punishment and Community Sanctions, led by SCCJR’s Gill McIvor and Margaret Malloch. This programme will involve further meetings and a range of future research and knowledge exchange activities. For details see our programme websiteand visit the document library for materials...
Listen to Ben Bradford talk about his research into influencing trust and confidence in the police
23rd March 2010
SCCJR’s Ben Bradford discusses his paper about influencing trust and confidence in the London Metropolitan police (co-authored with Elizabeth Stanko and Katrin Hohl). To access the video clip click here. The paper being discussed details how the researchers measured levels of trust and confidence in the police across areas of London. They then distributed leaflets about police activity to...
Dear Minister Letters – including contributions from Richard Sparks and Fergus McNeill
12th March 2010
In Criminal Justice Matters a range of open letters on criminology and public policy have been crafted by a range of academics directed at The Minister, whoever that may be following the forthcoming election. The letters include contributions from SCCJR’s Richard Sparks and Fergus McNeill, and other contributions from Ian Loader, Benjamin Goold, Gordon Hughes, Fergus McNeill, Coretta...
Criminal Justice System in Trouble – Fergus McNeill discusses on The Today Programme (Radio 4)
10th March 2010
SCCJR’s Fergus McNeill discussed his concerns for the future of the criminal justice system on the Today Programme on Wednesday 10th March. To listen to his discussion click here.
Social Control and Human Rights: Paper available for comments
4th March 2010
Fergus McNeill and Richard Sparks have recently contributed to a project by the International Council on Human Rights Policy on the contemporary relationships between social control and human rights. McNeill and Sparks’s draft paper on ‘Punnishment and Incaceration’ is available for comment here. Please direct comments on this paper to email@example.com. The...
Researching Gangs in Glasgow (Presentation at the British Society of Criminology Conference)
8th October 2009
SCCJR’s Alistair Fraser and Colin Atkinson recently presentated to the British Society of Criminology Conference (September 2009) about their experiences of researching gangs in glasgow. A power point of their presentation is available here - www.sccjr.ac.uk/documents/Researching_Gangs_in_Glasgow_-_BSC_June_2009.ppt...
How and why some people stop offending – Presentation to Norwegian correctional services available to view
7th July 2009
In June 2009 Professor Fergus McNeil gave a talk to Krus (the staff academy of the Norwegian correctional services) on how and why some people stop offending, This talk is avalable on the Krus website. Click here to...
Punishing Spaces, Working Spaces: Artist in Residence at SCCJR
Depictions of crime, and crime science, in popular culture represent the criminologist’s world through a narrow and increasingly hackneyed set of spaces – the crime lab and courtroom offering two examples. In this artistic-academic collaboration, photographer Jenny Wicks will be in residence at the Glasgow University site of SCCJR for ten months (February – November 2012). As an artist her...
Reconviction among young people sentenced in the pilot Youth Courts
This project was to assess whether the pilot Youth Courts were more effective in bringing about reductions in recidivism, reconviction among Youth Court cases was compared with reconviction among three other groups of cases: those sentenced in the sheriff summary court and those sentenced in two comparator Sheriff Summary Courts over a similar period of time. The work was requested by the...
Reconviction among Drug Court participants
The aim of the project was to assess whether the pilot drug courts had successful in bringing about reductions in re-offending by comparing drug court reconviction rates with reconviction rates among similar offenders sentenced elsewhere. The analysis compared recidivism among drug court participants sentenced over a period of 4 years with reconviction among offenders given DTTOs in Glasgow and...
Assessing Dynamic Risk in Intimate Partner Offenders
This project, which was conducted in 2009, was sponsored by the Scottish government and involved reviewing literature to develop a comprehensive risk assessment approach for intimate partner offenders which would be open to dynamic change, thus capable of reflecting the impact of treatment groups and other interventions within the criminal justice system. This was undertaken by Prof. E.
Assessing Risk in Intimate Partner Offenders
This project was sponsored by the Risk Management Authority and was undertaken 2009-2010. This involved critical appraisal of the literature and evidence base in IPV risk assessment and producing a paper to inform the Risk Management Authority’s guidance on IPV risk Assessment and management. The work was undertaken by Prof. Liz Gilchrist and is currently informing policy advice...
Understanding the drivers of the female prison population in Scotland
SCCJR are undertaking some analysis aimed at identifying factors that may have contributed to the increased use of female imprisonment in Scotland. The number of women imprisoned in Scotland has risen dramatically over the last 10-15 years (as it has done in other western jurisdictions) prompting questions as to the factors that have brought about this change. In seeking to explore this issue...
Ethnography of Penal Policy
This project, funded by the ESRC, is using the techniques and perspective of ethnography to study penal reform at a key moment in Scottish history. An ethnographic approach involves close up observation and immersion in the world it aims to document. Over the past 18 months, Sarah has been both working on and tracing the changes taking place in penal policy as various actors – civil...
Evaluation of Up-to-us Young Women’s Project
Evaluation of the Up-2-Us Time for Change Project This is an evaluation of the pilot Up-2-Us Time for Change Project, which is a gender-specific service targeted at young women aged between 14 and 18 years deemed to be at significantly high risk of admission to secure care or custody. The research takes a multi-dimensional perspective, by undertaking a set of qualitative interviews...
A Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Drivers of Perception of Anti-Social Behaviour
This rapid evidence assessment was requested and funded by the Home Office in 2009. Non-SCCJR colleagues John Flint and Sadie Parr were also members of the project team. The report is available here...
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Home Detention Curfew (HDC) and the Prison’s Open Estate
The Scottish Government has contracted with SCCJR to evaluate the effectiveness of these two schemes of graduated release from prisons. The project began in February 2010 and is scheduled to be complete at the end of September 2010. The evaluation involes statistical analysis of the trends of use and breach of HDC and open prisons, an assessment of the costs and benefits of the schemes and...
A Comparative Analysis of Community Service in Belgium, Holland, Scotland and Spain
This project is being undertaken for a special issue of the European Journal of Probation. An analytical framework has been adopted to describe the development, implementation and evolution of unpaid work by offenders in each country and to identify contemporary issues and challenges. A further comparative paper is focusing on identifying similarities and differences across jurisdictions, and how...
Women, Punishment and Community Sanctions – Human Rights and Social Justice
The core objective of the programme will be to draw upon international knowledge and expertise to critically assess cross cultural responses to lawbreaking by women with a particular emphasis upon human rights and social justice. The programme will focus upon comparative experiences of community sanctions for women, an area that has received relatively little academic and policy attention. In...
Evaluation of the Women in Focus Programme
The Women in Focus Programme is aimed at reducing the number of women imprisoned from the South West Scotland Community Justice Authority area by offering additional support within the framework of a statutory order. The research, funded by the South West Scotland Community Justice Authority, is assessing the effectiveness of the programme in reducing levels of breach and levels of custody...
A profile of female offenders within the Lothian and Borders
Understanding the characteristics and needs of women in the criminal justice system is a first step towards the development of effective interventions and services that can divert female offenders from imprisonment and support their desistance from crime. This study, funded by the Lothian and Borders Community Justice Authority, described and analysed the characteristics and needs of women...
Analysis of Supervision Skills by Juvenile Justice Workers
This research, funded by the Australian Criminology Research Council, is examining the nature and effectiveness of different styles of supervision of offenders. The research is being conducted in collaboration with the Department of Juvenile Justice in New South Wales. The study sample will include 50 juvenile justice workers and 200 juvenile justice clients (four clients for each worker). Data...
User Views of Punishment
Sarah Armstrong (Glasgow University) and Beth Weaver (Strathclyde University) are conducting research, in cooperation with the Scottish Prison Service, into the experience of doing short prison sentences and community-based sentences (probation, community service). We want to know what those affected by these punishments are going through and how such sentences help or hinder the ability to...
Working Lunches at Ivy Lodge
Working Lunches are held 12.30-2.00 pm once a week (currently Wednesday) in the ASRF Meeting Room, 66 Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow. They provide an informal space in which to discuss research ideas, whether this comes from work in progress, work we are thinking about doing or a common reading. We welcome visitors and have a small budget to offset costs of travel for anyone seeking a forum in which...
Consensus / Consenso
SCCJR, in collaboration with Xunta de Galicia, Spain and 4 other international partners, were awarded a grant under the European Commission, DG Freedom, Justice and Security: Framework Partnership ‘Prevention of and Fight Against Crime 2007’ for a project identifying, analysing and disseminating existing good practices in restorative juvenile justice across six...
Community Policing in Scotland
This AHRC funded knowledge transfer project runs from Jan 2009 to Dec 2011. It involves working with the Scottish police to interrogate available conceptual models of community policing and develop best practice in Scotland. The project has its own website at http://police.sccjr.ac.uk/ It involves a range of activities and outputs which will be posted to that site through the life of the project.
Racism and social marginalisation research study
Discrimination and social marginalisation are major stumbling blocks to integration and community cohesion. In particular, discrimination and racial abuse can lead to social marginalisation and alienation that, in turn, might be one set of factors leading some individuals to develop attitudes, and even activities, supporting criminal movements and their use of violence. With funding from the...
Families of Nations and Criminal Justice Outcomes
There is a long history within Social Policy of identifying groups of countries who share common policy outcomes (typified by the work of Gøsta Esping-Andersen, 1990, and Francis Castles, 1998). This work built on the recent work of Paul Norris (2007) by looking at how the groups of nations identified in other areas of Social Policy may relate to differences in criminal justice...
Scottish Prisons Commission Report
In July 2008, the Scottish Prisons Commission published its report, setting out an ambitious vision of penal reform. Sarah Armstrong and Fergus McNeill acted as academic advisers during the latter stages of the Commission’s work. The report, ‘Scotland’s Choice: Report of the Scottish Prisons Commission’, argued that a nation’s use of prison is partly an expression of...
Metaphors in Policy
Metaphors are not merely ornamental, they fundamentally shape how we know things. The use of passive language and particular prepositions when discussing womens’ offending (see the report ‘Women Offenders: A Safer Way’), for example, is the deployment of a metaphor of women as victims. The metaphors used to describe integration of public sector activities, such as...
Evaluation of the National Parenting Development Project Project (NPDP, Aberlour Child Care Trust).
This was a four year evaluation of the National Parenting Development Project which examined the strategic and direct impact of the project. This involved an examination of the collaborative work between NPDP and the Programmes Unit at HMP and YOI Cornton Vale where a pilot project has been introduced aimed at assisting women prisoners to address issues of separation...
European Society of Criminology Working Group on Community Sanctions
The European Society of Criminology has recently established a new Working Group on Community Sanctions. The group, which is open to members of the ESC, aims to stimulate critical comparative research on community sanctions in European jurisdictions. For more details, see: http://esc-eurocrim.org/workgroups.shtml#sanctions or contact Fergus McNeill at F.McNeill@sccjr.ac.uk...
Collaboration of Researchers for the Effective Development of Offender Supervision
CREDOS is an international network of researchers, and policy and practice partners in research, who share a common interest in the effective development of offender supervision. It was established following a seminar in Prato, Italy in September 2007 and aims to support, encourage and engage in high quality, collaborative and comparative research and scholarship.
An investigation into the environmental impact of off-license premises on residential neighbourhoods
The project was funded by the Alcohol Education Research Council (AERC) and has been conducted with Neil Davidson, now at the Scottish Institute for Policing Research, University of Dundee, and Jemma C Lennox of the Department of Psychology, Glasgow Caledonian University. As well as field observation and expert interview, this groundbreaking research has pioneered the use of digital photography...
Desistance and Reducing Reoffending
Desistance from crime – the process through which people cease and refrain from offending – is a research topic that is of significant import for criminal justice policy and practice. Staff of the SCCJR have already made a number of contributions to debates about how policy and practice could and should respond to the findings of desistance research. For...
Cultural Change in Community Justice
SCCJR was commissioned by the Scottish Government to prepare a brief literature review which explores cultural change in community justice. This is intended to inform the ongoing work of a Performance Improvement Strategy Group which is trying to develop the effectiveness and quality of criminal justice social work in Scotland, as part of the Reducing Reoffending agenda. The basic idea is...
Social Enquiry and Sentencing in the Sheriff Courts
This ESRC funded research project was a collaboration with Simon Halliday, Neil Hutton and Cyrus Tata at the University of Strathclyde. The study used innovative ethnographic methods to study the production of social enquiry (or pre-sentence) reports and their use by sentencers. A summary report of the project’s findings can be found in project documents, along with some related...
This project was funded by the British Academy and ran from March 2008-winter 2009. The basic idea was to collect oral histories of probation in Scotland by interviewing former probation officers and former probationers who experienced probation in the 1950s and 60s, prior to the demise of the Scottish Probation Service after the Social Work (Scotland) Act 1968. The reason for our...
Compliance with Community Penalties
This project is a collaboration with Dr Gwen Robinson at the University of Sheffield. At the moment we are awaiting a decision from the ESRC about funding the research. The focus of the project is on exploring the dynamics of compliance with community supervision. This is an area of considerable policy and practice significance, particularly in penal systems concerned about the...
Centre staff have longstanding interests in analysing all aspects of private sector involvement in penal institutions and practices. This project heading collects together numerous aspects of that interest and provides a means of finding relevant research on the topic. Please check back regularly for updates on activity and publications. Project DocumentsCommodification of Offender...
Crime and Justice Research Training and Development
The Capacity Building Network based at the University of Stirling is devoted primarily to capacity building in the area of criminal justice research, with a remit for developing and consolidating applied expertise, liaison with stakeholders, and overseeing outreach activities. Encouraging a multi-disciplinary approach to criminal justice research in Scotland is a major objective of this...
Policing in EU Seaports: Impact of the ISPS Code on Port Security Post 9/11
Eski, Y. and Carpenter, A. (2013) 'Policing in EU Seaports: Impact of the ISPS Code on Port Security Post 9/11'. In M. O'Neill, K. Swinton and A. Winter (eds) New Challenges for the EU Internal Security Strategy. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Summary of Review on quality in probation supervision
Shapland,J., Bottoms, A., Farrall, S., McNeill, F., Priede, C. and Robinson, G. (2012), Summary of Review on quality in probation supervision, Ministry of Justice.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Home Detention Curfew and Open Prison in Scotland
Armstrong, S., Malloch, M., Norris, P., and Nellis, M. (2011) Evaluation of the Use of Home Detention Curfew and the Open Prison Estate in Scotland. Project Report. Scottish Government Social Research, Edinburgh, UK.
The Quantification of Prison Population Projections
Armstrong, S. (2012), The Quantification of Fear Through Prison Population Projections. Available at Social Science Research Network.
User Views of Punishment: The dynamics of community-based punishment: insider views from the outside
Armstrong, S., and Weaver, B., (2011) User Views of Punishment: The dynamics of community-based punishment: insider views from the outside. SCCJR Research Report No.03/2011.
Briefing paper: Understanding the drivers of female imprisonment in Scotland
McIvor, G. and Burman, M. (2011), Briefing paper: Understanding the drivers of female imprisonment in Scotland, SCCJR Briefing 01/2011.
Understanding the Drivers of Female Imprisonment in Scotland
McIvor, G. and Burman, M. (2011), Understanding the Drivers of Female Imprisonment in Scotland. SCCJR Research Report No.2. 2011
Mackenzie, S. (2011) 'Trafficking Antiquities'. In: M. Natarajan (ed) International Crime and Justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 141 - 147.
What Do the Punished Think of Punishment?: The comparative experience of short term prison sentences and community-based punishments
Armstrong, S., and Weaver, B., (2010), What Do the Punished Think of Punishment? The comparative experience of short prison sentences and community-based punishments. SCCJR Research Report No. 04/2010.
Community Payback and the new National Standards for Criminal Justice Social Work
McNeill, F. (2010), Community Payback and the new National Standards for Criminal Justice Social Work. SCCJR Briefing Paper No.02/2010.
Drug Courts: Lessons from the UK and Beyond
McIvor, G. (2010) 'Drug Courts: Lessons from the UK and Beyond'. In A. Hucklesby and E. Wincup (eds) Drug Interventions in Criminal Justice. Maidenhead: Open University Press; 135 - 160.
Legitimacy and Procedural Justice in Prisons
Jackson, J., Tyler, T. R., Bradford, B., Taylor, D. and Shiner, M. (2010), Legitimacy and procedural justice in prisons. London School of Economics.
Whatever Happened to Reassurance Policing?
Millie, A. (2010) ‘Whatever happened to reassurance policing?’ Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 4(3) 225–232.
Procedural Justice, Trust, and Institutional Legitimacy
Hough M, Jackson J, Bradford B, Myhill A and Quinton P (2010) Procedural justice, trust, and
institutional legitimacy. Policing 4(3): 203–210.
Different Things to Different People? The Meaning and Measurement of Trust and Confidence in Policing Across Diverse Social Groups in London
Bradford, B., and Jackson, J. (2010), Different Things to Different People? The Meaning and Measurement of Trust and Confidence in Policing Across Diverse Social Groups in London. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1628546 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1628546
Report on Community Payback Order Seminar
SCCJR (2010), Report on Community Payback Order Seminar, SCCJR and SCCCJ Report.
Reconviction Among youth Court and Comparison Cases
McIvor, G. (2010) Reconviction Among youth Court and Comparison Cases, in Review of the Hamilton and Airdrie Youth Courts: Report, Edinburgh: Scottish Government Community Justice Services.
Reconviction Among Drug Court Participants
McIvor, G. (2010) Reconviction Among Drug Court Participants, in Review of the Glasgow and Fife Drug Courts: Report, Edinburgh: Scottish Government Community Justice Services.
The quality of police contact: procedural justice concerns among victims of crime in London
Bradford, B., (2010), 'The Quality of Police Contact: Procedural Justice Concerns Among Victims of Crime in London'. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1596754 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1596754
Paying back: 30 years of unpaid work by offenders in Scotland
McIvor, G. (2010) ‘Paying back: 30 years of unpaid work by offenders in Scotland’, European Journal of Probation, 2, 1, 41-61.
Professional decision-making and women offenders: Containing the chaos?
Barry, M. and McIvor, G. (2010) 'Professional decision-making and women offenders: Containing the chaos', Probation Journal, 57, 1, 27-41.
Travelling Hopefully: Desistance Research and Probation Practice
Weaver, B. and McNeill, F. (2010) 'Travelling hopefully: Desistance Research and Probation Practice'. In: J. Brayford, F. Cowe and J. Deering (eds) What Else Works?: Creative Work with Offenders. Cullompton: Willan; 36 - 60.
Tackling Addiction: Pathways to Recovery
Yates, R. and Malloch, M.S. (2012) Tackling Addiction: Pathways to Recovery. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Social Work in Criminal Justice
McNeill, F., Bracken, D., and Clarke, A. (2010) 'Social Work and Criminal Justice'. In: I. Shaw, K. Briar-Lawson, J. Orme and R. Ruckdeschel (eds) The Sage Handbook of Social Work Research. London: Sage; 447 - 462.
Influencing trust and confidence in the London Metropolitan Police: results from an experiment testing the effect of leaflet drops on public opinion
Hohl, K., Bradford, B. and Stanko, E. (2010).‘Influencing Trust and Confidence in the London Metropolitan Police: Results from an Experiment Testing the Effect of Leaflet Drops on Public Opinion.’ British Journal of Criminology 50(3): 491–513.
Families of Nations, Victimisation and Attitudes Towards Criminal Justice
Norris, P. (2009) "Families of Nations, Victimisation and Attitudes Towards Criminal Justice", International Review of Victimology. Vol. 16, pp. 229–255.
Vulnerability and risk: some lessons from the UK Reducing Burglary Initiative
Millie, A. (2008) ‘Vulnerability and risk: Some lessons from the UK Reducing Burglary Initiative’, Police Practice and Research, 9(3) 183-198.
Evidencing sexual assault: Women in the witness box
Burman, M.J. (2009) Evidencing sexual assault: women in the witness box.Probation Journal, 56 (4). pp. 379-398.
Primary Support Project; An Evaluation
MacQueen, S. and Whyte, B. (2009), Primary Support Project: an Evaluation,Criminal Justice Social Work Development Centre for Scotland TEP Paper 9.
Support and Services for Parents: A Review of the Literature in Engaging and Supporting Parents
Hutton, L., MacQueen, S., Curran, J. and Whyte, B. (2007), Support and Services for Parents: A Review of the Literature in Engaging and Supporting Parents. Scottish Government.
Support and Services for Parents: A Review of Practice Development in Scotland
Hutton, L., MacQueen, S., Curran, J. and Whyte, B. (2007), Support and Services for Parents: A Review of Practice Development in Scotland. Scottish Government.
Insight 41: Support and Services for Parents in Scotland
MacQueen, S., Curran, J., Hutton, L. and Whyte, B. (2008), Insight 41: Support and Services for Parents in Scotland. Scottish Governmnet.
Interview with Ken Moroney, Commissioner of New South Wales Police, Australia
Millie, A. (2009) 'Interview with Ken Moroney, Commissioner of New South Wales Police, Australia'. In: D.K. Das and O. Marenin (eds) Trends in Policing: Interviews with Police Leaders Across the Globe (Interviews with Global Leaders in Policing, Courts, and Prisons). London: CRC Press; 1 - 22.
Why Tackle Anti-social Behaviour?
Jacobson, J., Millie, A. and Hough, M. (2008) ‘Why Tackle Anti-social Behaviour?’. In: P. Squires (ed) ASBO Nation: The Criminalisation of Nuisance. Bristol: The Policy Press; 37 - 56.
Crime as an issue during the 2005 UK general election
Millie, A. (2008) ‘Crime as an issue during the 2005 UK General Election’, Crime, Media, Culture, 4(1) 101-111.
Education and Training in Four Countries: Getting Rule of Law Messages Across
Millie, A. and Das, D. (2008) ‘Education and Training in Four Countries: Getting Rule of Law Messages Across’. In K. Aromaa and S. Redo (eds) For the Rule of Law: Criminal Justice Training and Teaching Across the World. Helsinki: HEUNI (The European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control); 184 - 202.
Contemporary Issues in Law Enforcement and Policing
Millie, A. and Das, D.K. (eds) (2008) Contemporary Issues in Law Enforcement and Policing. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Contact and confidence: revisiting the impact of public encounters with the police
Bradford, B., Jackson, J. and Stanko, E. A. (2009), Contact and confidence: revisiting the impact of public encounters with the police. Policing and Society 19(1): 20-46.
Crime, policing and social order: on the expressive nature of public confidence in policing
Jackson, J. and Bradford, B. (2009) 'Crime, policing and social order: on the expressive nature of public confidence in policing'. British journal of sociology, 60 (3). pp. 493-521. ISSN 0007-1315
Using Research to Inform Policy: The Role of Public Attitude Surveys in Understanding Public Confidence and Police Contact
Bradford, B., Stanko, E. A. and Jackson, J. (2009), Using Research to Inform Policy: The Role of Public Attitude Surveys in Understanding Public Confidence and Police Contact. Policing (2009) 3 (2): 139-148.
Beyond Measuring ‘How Good a Job’ Police Are Doing: The MPS Model of Confidence in Policing
Stanko, E. A. and Bradford, B. (2009), Beyond Measuring 'How Good a Job' Police Are Doing: The MPS Model of Confidence in Policing. Policing (2009) 3 (4): 322-330.
Does the fear of crime erode public confidence in policing?
Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Hohl, K. and Farrall, S. (2009), Does the fear of crime erode public confidence in policing?, Policing (2009) 3 (1): 100-111.
Public Trust in Criminal Justice: A Review of the Research Literature in the United States
Bradford, B., and Jackson, J., (2009), 'Public Trust in Criminal Justice: A Review of the Research Literature in the United States', Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1369704 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1369704
Conceptualising tolerance: paradoxes of tolerance and intolerance in contemporary Britain
Kearns, A, and Bannister, J (2009) Conceptualising tolerance: Paradoxes of tolerance and intolerance in contemporary Britain. Italian Journal of Sociology of Education, 2 . pp. 126-147.
Community policing: a Review of the Evidence
Mackenzie, S., and Henry, A. (2009) Community Policing: A Review of the Evidence. Scottish Government, Edinburgh, UK. ISBN 9780755977314
Burman, M.J., and Johnstone, J. (2010) Youth Justice. Series: Practice and policy in health and social care (9). Dunedin Academic Press: Edinburgh.
Securing Respect: Behavioural Expectations and Anti-Social Behaviour in the UK
Millie, A. (ed) (2009) Securing Respect: Behavioural Expectations and Anti-Social Behaviour in the UK. Bristol: The Policy Press.
‘Borderline sentencing: A comparison of sentencers’ decision-making in England and Wales, and Scotland’
Millie, A., Tombs, J. and Hough, M. (2007) ‘Borderline sentencing: A comparison of sentencers’ decision-making in England and Wales, and Scotland’, Criminology and Criminal Justice, 7(3) 243-267.
Rehabilitation and Resettlement: A Study of Prolific Offender Case Management in Birmingham, United Kingdom
Millie, A. and Erol, R. (2006) 'Rehabilitation and resettlement: a study of prolific offender case management in Birmingham, United Kingdom'. In: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 50(6): 691 - 710.
Sex Offender Community Notification in Scotland
Weaver, B. (2009) 'Sex Offender Community Notification in Scotland'. SCCJR Briefing Paper, No. 03/2009.
Risk, responsibility and reconfiguration: Penal adaptation and misadaptation
McNeill, F., Burns, N., Halliday, S., Hutton, N., and Tata, C. (2009) Risk, responsibility and reconfiguration penal adaptation and misadaptation. Punishment and Society, 11 (4). pp. 419-442. ISSN 1426-4745 (doi:10.1177/1462474509341153).
Enquetes de Criminalite et de Delinquance Autoreportees en Grande-Bretagne et en Irlande
McVie, S., (2009) 'Enquetes de Criminalite et de Delinquance Autoreportees en Grande-Bretagne et en Irlande'. In: R. Zaubermann (ed) Les Enquetes de delinquance et de deviance autoreportees en Europe: Etat des Savoirs et Bilan des Usages. Parin: L'Harmattan; 149 - 180.
Critical Issues in Researching Hidden Communities
Ashe, S., Fraser, A. and Piacentini, T. (2009) ‘Introduction: Critical Issues in Researching ‘Hidden Communities’’. In: eSharp - Special Issue: Critical Issues in Researching Hidden Communities. Glasgow: University of Glasgow; 1 - 9.
Prisons and Sentencing Reform
McNeill, Fergus (2008) Social work, payback and punishment. In: Lightowler, C. and Hare, D. (eds.) Prisons and Sentencing Reform: Developing policy in Scotland. Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research, pp. 18-21.
Risk, responsibility and reconfiguration
McNeill, F., Burns, N., Halliday, S., Hutton, N., and Tata, C. (2009) Risk, responsibility and reconfiguration penal adaptation and misadaptation. Punishment and Society, 11 (4). pp. 419-442. ISSN 1426-4745
Supervising Young Offenders: What Works and What’s Right
McNeill, F. (2009) 'Supervising Young Offenders: What Works and What's Right'. In: M. Barry and F. McNeill (eds) Youth Offending and Youth Justice. Series: Research highlights (52). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 132 - 153.
The illusion of control: a response to Professor Sherman
SCCJR Response to the Justice Committee Call for Written Evidence on the Criminal Justice and Licensing (Scotland) Bill
SCCJR, (2009), 'SCCJR Response to the Justice Committee Call for Written Evidence on the Criminal Justice and Licensing (Scotland) Bill'. SCCJR.
Managing Meaning: Metaphor in Criminal Justice Policy
Armstrong, S. (2009), Managing Meaning: Metaphor in Criminal Justice Policy. SCCJR Working Paper.
Circles of Support & Accountability: Consideration of the Feasibility of Pilots in Scotland
Armstrong, S., Chistyakova, Y., Mackenzie, S., and Malloch, M., (2008) Circles of Support and Accountability: Consideration of the Feasibility of Pilots in Scotland. SCCJR Research Report No. 01/2008.
Choice vs. Crisis: How Scotland could transform thinking about prisons and punishment
Armstrong, S. and McNeill, F. (2009) Choice versus crisis: how Scotland could transform the way we think about prisons and punishment.Criminal Justice Matters, 75 (1). pp. 2-4. ISSN 0962-7251
Reducing reoffending: lessons from psychotherapy and counselling
Burnett, R. and Batchelor, S. and McNeill, F. (2006) Reducing reoffending: Lessons from psychotherapy and counselling. Criminal Justice Matters, 61 (41). pp. 32-41. ISSN 0962-7251
Perspectives on Punishment: The Contours of Control
Armstrong, S. and McAra, L. (eds) (2006) Perspectives on Punishment: The Contours of Control. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Audiences, Borders, Architecture: The Contours of Control
Armstrong, S. and McAra, L. (2006) 'Audiences, Borders, Architecture: the Contours of Control'. In: S. Armstrong and L. McAra (eds) Perspectives on Punishment: The Contours of Control. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1-30.
Developments in Social Work with Offenders
McIvor, G. and Raynor, P. (2007) Developments in Social Work with Offenders (Series: Research Highlights in Social Work 48). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Evaluation of the Scottish Prison Service Transitional Care Initiative
MacRae, R.; McIvor, G.; Malloch, M.; Barry, M. And Murray, L. (2006) Evaluation Of The Scottish Prison Service Transitional Care Initiative, Scottish Executive Social Research. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
Evaluation of the Arrest Referral Pilot Scheme
Birch, A., Dobbie, F., Chalmers, T., Barnsdale, L., McIvor, G. and Yates, R. (2006), Evaluation of the Arrest Referral Pilot Scheme. Scottish Executive.
Evaluation of the Airdrie Sheriff Youth Court Pilot
McIvor, G, Barnsdale, L, Brown, A, Eley, S, Macrae, R, Malloch, M, Murray, C, Murray, L, Piacentini, L, Popham, F and Walters, R (2006) 'Evaluation of the Airdrie sheriff youth court pilot.' Scottish Executive Social Research, Edinburgh.
Introduction and Overview (Developments in Social Work with Offenders)
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Paying Back – Unpaid Work by Offenders
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Assessment in Criminal Justice
McIvor, G. (2007) 'Assessment in Criminal Justice'. In: J. Lishman (ed) Handbook for Practice Learning in Social Work and Social Care, Knowledge and Theory. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 138 - 152.
Will brightly coloured uniforms raise public confidence in criminal justice?
Armstrong, S., (2009), Will brightly coloured uniforms raise public confidence in criminal justice? Summary of journal article: Shadd Maruna and Anna King, ‘Selling the Public on Probation: Beyond the Bib,’ The Journal of Community and Criminal Justice, 2008 NAPO Vol 55(4): 337–351.
Crime and Social Change in Middle England: Questions of Order in an English Town
Girling, E., Loader, I. and Sparks, R. (1999) Crime and Social Change in Middle England: Questions of Order in an English Town. London: Routledge.
How to Reduce Youth Crime and Anti-Social Behaviour by Going Round in Circles
Mackenzie, S. (2008) How to Reduce Youth Crime and Anti-social Behaviour by Going Round in Circles. Discussion Paper. Institute for Public Policy Research.
The Seductions of Conformity: the Criminological Importance of a Phenomenology of Exchange
Mackenzie, S. (2009) 'The Seductions of Conformity: the Criminological Importance of a Phenomenology of Exchange'. In: R. Lippens and D. Crewe (eds) Existentialist Criminology. London: Routledge; 197 - 221.
Towards Effective Practice in Offender Supervision
Neill, F. (2009) Towards Effective Practice in Offender Supervision. SCCJR Discussion Paper No. 01/2009.
Contemporary Landscapes of Crime, Order and Control: Governance, Risk and Globalization
Loader, I. and Sparks, R. (2007) 'Contemporary Landscapes of Crime, Order and Control: Governance, Risk and Globalization'. In: M. Maguire, R. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds). The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th Edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press; 78 - 101.
The Politics of Imprisonment
Sparks, R. (2007) 'The Politics of Imprisonment'. In: Y. Jewkes (ed) Handbook on Prisons. Cullomptonm, Devon: Willan Publishing; 73 - 94.
Impact of Aspects of the Law of Evidence in Sexual Offence Trials: An Evaluation Study
Burman, M., Jamieson, L., Nicholson, J. and Brooks, O.(2007), Impact of Aspects of the Law of Evidence in Sexual Offence Trials: An Evaluation Study. The Scottish Government.
Changing policy and practice? Criminal justice research in Scotland
Burman, M.J. (2008) Changing policy and practice? Criminal justice research in Scotland.Criminal Justice Matters, 72 (1). pp. 34-36. ISSN 0962-7251.
Shadow writing and participant observation: A study of criminal justice social work around sentencing’
Halliday, S. and Burns, N. and Hutton, N. and McNeill, F. and Tata, C. (2008) Shadow writing and participant observation: a study of criminal justice social work around sentencing. Journal of Law and Society, 35 (2). pp. 189-213. ISSN 0263-323X
A desistance paradigm for offender management
McNeill, F. (2006) A desistance paradigm for offender management.Criminology and Criminal Justice, 6 (1). 39-62 . ISSN 1748-8958 (doi:10.1177/1748895806060666)
Tombs, J. (2006) 'Towards Decarceration'. In: J. Scott, C. Fox and G. Gall (eds) Whose Justice? The Law and the Left. Edinburgh: Scottish Left Review Press.
Telling Sentencing Stories
Tombs, J. (2008) 'Telling Sentencing Stories'. In: Pat Carlen (ed) Imaginary Penalities. Cullompton, Devon: Willan Publishing; 64 - 83.
Reconfigurations of penality :The ongoing case of the women’s imprisonment and reintegration industries
Carlen, P. and Tombs, J. (2006) 'Reconfigurations of penality: The on-going case of the women’s imprisonment and reintegration industries'. Theoretical Criminology 10(3): 337–360.
Denying Responsibility: Sentencers’ Accounts of their Decisions to Imprison
Tombs, J. and Jagger, E. (2006), Denying Responsibility: Sentencers' Accounts of their Decisions to Imprison. British Journal of Criminology 46, 803–821.
Borderline sentencing: A comparison of sentencers’ decision making in England and Wales, and Scotland
Millie, A., Tombs, J. and Hough, M. (2007) ‘Borderline sentencing: A comparison of sentencers’ decision-making in England and Wales, and Scotland’, Criminology and Criminal Justice, 7(3) 243-267.
Shadow Writing and Participant Observation: A Study of Criminal Justice Social Work Around Sentencing
Halliday, S., Burns, N., Hutton, N., McNeill, F., and Tata, C. (2008) Shadow writing and participant observation: a study of criminal justice social work around sentencing. Journal of Law and Society, 35 (2). pp. 189-213. ISSN 0263-323X (doi:10.1111/j.1467-6478.2008.00435.x)
Crime pays but for whom
Armstrong, S.C. (2008) Crime pays - but for whom?Scottish Left Review, 48 . pp. 8-9.
More haste, less speed? An Evaluation of Fast Track policies to tackle persistent offending Scotland
Hil, M., Walker, M., Moodie, K., Wallace, B., Khan, F., McIvor, G. and Kendrick, A., (2007), More haste, less speed? An evaluation of fast track policies to tackle persistent youth offending in Scotland. Youth Justice Vol 7, No. 2, pp. 121-138.
Global Lockdown: Race, Gender, and the Prison-Industrial Complex, edited by Julia Sudbury
Armstrong, S., (2007), Book review: Global Lockdown: Race, Gender, and the Prison-Industrial Complex, edited by Julia Sudbury, Punishment & Society 2007 9: 417
A New Paradigm for Social Work with Offenders?
McNeill, F. (2006), A New Paradigm for Social Work with Offenders? CJScotland, online.
An Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Monitoring as a Condition of Bail in Scotland
Barry, M., Malloch M., Moodie, K., Nellis, M., Knapp, M., Romeo, R.and Dhanasiri, S. (2007). An Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Monitoring as a Condition of Bail in Scotland. Scottish Executive
Weaver, B., and McNeill, F. (2007) 'Desistance'. In: R. Canton and D. Hancock (eds) The Dictionary of Probation and Offender Management. Cullompton, Devon: Willan; 90 - 92.
Scotland: Criminal Justice Social Work
McNeill, F. and McIvor, G. (2007) 'Scotland: Criminal Justice Social Work'. In: R. Canton, and D. Hancock (eds) The Dictionary of Probation and Offender Management. Cullompton, Devon: Willan; 280 - 282.
Giving Up and Giving Back: Desistance, Generativity and Social Work with Offenders
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Community Supervision: Context and Relationships Matter
McNeill, F. (2006) 'Community Supervision: Context and Relationships Matter. In: B. Goldson and J. Muncie (eds) Youth Crime and Justice: Critical Issues. London: Sage; 125 - 138.
Probation in Scotland: Past, Present and Future
McIvor, G. and McNeill, F. (2007) Probation in Scotland: Past, Present and Future. In: L. Gelsthorpe and R. Morgan (eds) The Handbook of Probation. Cullompton, Devon: Willan; 131 - 154.
Developments in Probation in Scotland
McIvor, G. and McNeill, F. (2008) 'Developments in Probation in Scotland. In: G. McIvor and Peter Raynor (eds) Developments in Social Work with Offenders. Series: Research highlights in social work (48). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 82 - 98.
McCulloch, T., and McNeill, F. (2008) 'Desistance-focused Approaches'. In: S. Green, E. Lancaster and S. Feasey (eds.) Addressing Offending Behaviour: Context, Practice and Values. Cullompton, Devon: Willan Publishing; 154 - 171.
The End of an Era? Youth Justice in Scotland
Burman, M., Bradshaw, P., Hutton, N., McNeill, F., and Munro, M. (2006) The End of an Era? Youth Justice in Scotland. In: J. Junger-Tas and H.D. Scott (eds) International Handbook of Juvenile Justice. Dordrecht: Springer; 435 - 467.
Responding to Drug and Alcohol Problems: Innovations and Effectiveness in Treatment Programmes for Women
Malloch, M. and Loucks, N. (2007) 'Responding to Drug and Alcohol Problems: Innovations and Effectiveness in Treatment Programmes for Women'. In: R. Sheehan, G. McIvor and C. Trotter (eds) What Works with Women Offenders. Cullompton, Devon: Willan; 91 - 109.
Reducing Reoffending: Social Work and Community Justice in Scotland
McNeill, F. and Whyte, B. (2007) Reducing Reoffending: Social Work and Community Justice in Scotland. Cullompton, Devon: Willan.
Giving Up Crime: Directions for Policy
McNeill F. and Weaver B., (2007), Giving up crime: directions for policy, SCCCJ Online
Legitimacy and Imprisonment Revisited: Notes on the Problem of Order Ten Years after
Sparks, R. and Bottoms, A.E. (2007) 'Legitimacy and Imprisonment Revisited: Notes on the Problem of Order Ten Years after'. In: J. Byrne, F. Taxman and D. Hummer (eds) The Culture of Prison Violence. Boston: Allyn and Bacon; 91 - 104.
Is there life after imprisonment? How elderly men talk about imprisonment and release
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Introduction:`What Lies Beyond? Problems, Prospects and Possibilities for Life after Punishment
Sparks, R. and Farrall, S. (2006), 'Introduction to Special Issue: What Lies Beyond? Problems, Prospects and Possibilities for Life after Punishment'. Criminology and Criminal Justice Vol 6(1): 7-16
Consumer Society, Commodification and Offender Management
McCulloch, T., and McNeill, Fergus (2007) Consumer society, commodification and offender management. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 7 (3). 223-242 . ISSN 1748-8958 (doi:10.1177/1748895807078863)
Tit for Tat: Criminal Justice Policy and the Evolution of Co-operation
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Dealing in Cultural Objects: a New Criminal Law for the UK
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Public Insecurities About Crime: A Review of the British Research Literature
Jackson, J., Farrall, S., Hough, M. and Bradford, B. (2008), Public Insecurities About Crime: A Review of the British Research Literature. SSRN.
Trust and Confidence in Criminal Justice: A Review of the British Research Literature
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(In)civility and the city
Fyfe, N, Bannister, J, and Kearns, A (2006) Incivility and the City.Urban Studies, 43 (5/6). pp. 919-938.
What Good Are Markets in Punishment?
Armstrong, S.C. (2007) What good are markets in punishment?Prison Service Journal, 172 . pp. 1-4. ISSN 0300-3558.
Contemporary Issues in Law Enforcement and Policing
Millie, A. and Das, D.K. (eds) (2008) Contemporary Issues in Law Enforcement and Policing. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Dealing with Difference and Diversity
Gelsthorpe, L. and McIvor, G. (2007) 'Dealing with Difference and Diversity'. In: L. Gelsthorpe and R. Morgan (eds) Handbook of Probation. Cullompton, Devon: Willan Publishing; 322 - 351.
The Trial and Its Alternatives as Speech Situations
Girling, E. J., Smith, M. and Sparks, R. (2006) 'The Trial and Its Alternatives as Speech Situations'. In: A. Duff, L. Farmer, S. Marshall and V. Tadros (eds) The Trial on Trial: Judgment and Calling to Account v. 2. Abingdon Road, Oxford: Hart Publishing; 65 - 82.